Current scenario of catalysts for biodiesel production: A critical review

Due to increasing concerns about global warming and dwindling oil supplies, the world’s attention is turning to green processes that use sustainable and environmentally friendly feedstock to produce renewable energy such as biofuels. Among them, biodiesel, which is made from nontoxic, biodegradable, renewable sources such as refined and used vegetable oils and animal fats, is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification in which oil or fat is reacted with short chain alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The process of transesterification is affected by the mode of reaction, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, nature and amo

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